Fondation Cournot



The Foundation organizes transdisciplinary conferences focused on the role of probability in the sciences.


Have Energy Prices Entered a New Regime?


Speakers (to be confirmed): Raimund Bleischwitz (UCL Institute for Sustainable Resources), Josselin Garnier (University Paris Diderot), Aurélien Saussay (OFCE), Knut Sølna (University of California, Irvine), Robert Solow (MIT)


After 18 months of decline, the price of hydrocarbons seems to have stabilized at the end of 2015. How can we interpret this recent development and the preceding periods?
The conference will present empirical groundwork on the new price regime that is taking shape. What do the data tell us? How have spot prices, relative prices evolved?
The conference will focus on macroeconomic and geopolitical theoretical developments: Which elements determine market prices? What are the expectations in global growth? How have representations changed, in particular on financial markets?

Conference Celebrating the Centennial of the Birth of Kiyosi Itô

Kiyosi ItôAmbassade de France au Japon, salle de réunion de l’atrium, 1F 4-11-44 Minami Azabu, Minato-ku, Tōkyō, 106-8514
7 minutes from the metro station Hiroo (Exit 1) -
Access map :

Organized by L'Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques and Fondation et Centre Cournot

Contributors: Jean-Pierre Bourguignon (Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques), Nicole El Karoui (École polytechnique), Masatoshi Fukushima (Osaka University), Tadahisa Funaki (University of Tokyo), Josselin Garnier (Université Paris Diderot), Daniel Goroff (Alfred P. Sloan Foundation), Shigeo Kusuoka (University of Tokyo), Glenn Shafer (Rutgers Business School), Jean-Philippe Touffut (Cournot Centre)

The work of Kiyosi Itô and the Japanese school of stochastic processes that he founded is exceptional both in its beauty as pure mathematics and in the insights it has provided in biology, chemistry, quantum physics, electrical engineering, and finance. As the International Mathematical Union attested in awarding Itô its first Carl Friedrich Gauss prize in 2006, his work ranks as part of the world’s cultural heritage.

From its outset, however, Itô’s work has stood in a special relationship to French mathematicians. The first citation in Itô’s published work, in fact, the first sentence of his first article, was to Paul Lévy’s, Théorie de l’addition des variables aléatoires. As Itô later wrote, he learned stochastic processes from this book. His goal was to make fully mathematical the beautiful structure the book depicted, and he succeeded. It is often said that other French mathematicians understood Lévy only after Itô had explained his contribution. Thirty years later, in the 1970s, Itô was still interacting with French mathematicians, embracing and further developing Paul-André Meyer’s semimartingale-based version of Itô’s theory of stochastic integration. Today, French mathematicians remain among those most keen to develop the applications of Itô’s calculus in physics and finance.

This conference examines Itô’s legacy from the perspective of this relationship. Is the theory of stochastic processes now truly a theory of sample paths as Lévy had envisioned? What has made Lévy processes and Itô’s understanding of stochastic integration so fruitful for applications in physics and finance? Where is Itô’s legacy taking us today?

Thursday, 26 November 2015

10:30 am – Opening Session
Glenn SHAFER (Rutgers Business School)
Whither Kiyosi Itô’s reconciliation of Lévy (betting) and Doob (measure)?
Shafer Presentation - Nov 2015.pdf

12:00 pm – Lunch

1:30 pm – Session 1: Itô’s Heritage
Masatoshi FUKUSHIMA (Osaka University)
The Life and Mathematical Legacy of Itô Sensei
Fukushima Presentation - Nov 2015.pdf

Daniel GOROFF (Sloan Foundation)
Abstraction vs. Application: Itô’s Calculus, Wiener’s Chaos, and Poincaré’s Tangle
Goroff Presentation - Nov 2015.pdf

3:00 pm – Coffee break

3:30 pm – Session 2: Itô and Stochastic Analysis
Tadahisa FUNAKI (University of Tokyo)
Some Topics in Stochastic Partial Differential Equations
Funaki Presentation - Nov 2015.pdf

Josselin GARNIER (Université Paris Diderot - Centre Cournot)
Itô's Calculus in Physics and Stochastic Partial Differential Equations
Garnier Presentation - Nov 2015.pdf

Friday, 27 November 2015

10:30 am – Session 3: Itô’s Calculus and Financial Applications
Nicole EL KAROUI (École polytechnique)
What Makes Kiyosi Itô Famous on Trading Floors?
El Karoui Presentation - Nov 2015.pdf

Shigeo KUSUOKA (University of Tokyo)
Itô Calculus, Malliavin Calculus and Finance
Kusuoka Presentation - Nov 2015.pdf

12:00 pm – Closing Remarks

• With the support of:
Ambassade de France au Japon
Japan Science and Technology Agency (CREST)
The Mathematical Society of Japan (MSJ)

Financing Innovation: Lessons from Europe, Japan and the US

Monday, 29 September 2014
Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche
Stourdzé Amphitheatre
1 rue Descartes, Paris, 5e

Speakers: Jean-Louis Beffa (Centre Cournot), Jean-Pierre Bourguignon (European Research Council), Daniel Goroff (Sloan Foundation), Yuko Harayama (Japanese Council for Science, Technology and Innovation), Thibaut Kleiner (European Commission), Julia Lane (American Institutes for Research), Beth-Anne Schuelke-Leech (Ohio State University), Robert Solow (MIT)

9:15 am: Welcome and Introduction to the Conference
9:30 am: The Financing and Allocation of Innovation: Directions, Indicators and Incentives

Thibaut Kleiner, European Commission

11 am: Coffee break
11:30 am: Venture Capital, Philanthropy and Public Financing

Daniel Goroff, Sloan Foundation
Goroff Presentation 29-09-2014 (1.8 MiB)

Beth-Anne Schuelke-Leech, Ohio State University
Schuelke-Leech Presentation 29-09-2014 (1.7 MiB)

1 pm: Buffet lunch
2:30 pm: Implications and Policy Conclusions for Governments and for Private Actors

Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, European Research Council
Bourguignon Presentation 29-09-2014 (612.4 KiB)

Yuko Harayama, Japanese Council for Science, Technology and Innovation
Harayama Presentation 29-09-2014 (760.2 KiB))

Are There Limits to the Probabilization of Science?

2 December 2013, Cambridge, MA

10 am – 12 pm, 1:30 – 3:30 pm
The Pappalardo Room, 4-349, Department of Physics, MIT, Cambridge, MA

Organized with Harvard Medical School

Speakers: Noureddine El Karoui (UC, Berkeley), Josselin Garnier (University Paris VII), Alice Guionnet (MIT), Andreas Hilfinger (Harvard), Jonathan Le Roux (MERL), Johan Paulsson (Harvard)

This conference brings together renowned probabilists from diverse scientific fields – probability theory, biology, geophysics, linguistics. By comparing definitions and methods, they assess the advance of probability in their respective disciplines and throughout the sciences as a whole. How do these disciplines intersect or diverge? Is there a common research agenda? What are the next steps in the development of probability?

Part I 10 am – 12 pm: The Advance of Probability: How Far Has It Come?

Noureddine el Karoui (UC, Berkeley), The Relationship between Probability and Statistics

Alice Guionnet (M.I.T.), Progress in Random Matrices
Johan Paulsson (HMS), Defining a Stochastic Research Agenda in Systems Biology
Part II 1:30 – 3:30 pm: The Probability Approach

Jonathan Le Roux (MERL): The Probabilization of Machine Perception in Speech and Audio

Andreas Hilfinger (HMS): Understanding Biological Systems by Analyzing Stochastic Fluctuations

Josselin Garnier (Université Paris-VII): Is a Common Agenda for Applied Probabilists Possible?

The Limits of the Probabilization of Science

17 December 2012, Boston

Chaired by Robert Solow (MIT)

Speakers: Rémi Catellier (University of Paris IX), Meriem El Karoui (Harvard), Josselin Garnier (ENS), Andreas Hilfinger (Harvard), Johan Paulsson (Harvard).














Cournot Foundation